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  1. 本文记录通过 ssh key 登录 Ubuntu 的设置。 安装 openssh server sudo apt-get install openssh-server 查看运行状态 sudo service ssh status 或者 sudo systemctl status ssh.service 执行 ssh-keygen Generating public/private rsa key pair. Enter file in which to save the key (/home/ubuntus/.ssh/id_rsa): /home/ubuntus/d Enter passphrase (empty for no passphrase): Enter same passphrase again: Your identification has been saved in /home/ubuntus/.ssh/id_rsa. Your public key has been saved in /home/ubuntus/.ssh/id_rsa.pub. The key fingerprint is: SHA256:J+l/vCIK1E40M9lkqd/9ycuhOF1fQ4CjFimSZYkFAC8 ubuntus@ubuntuS The key's randomart image is: +---[RSA 2048]----+ | .....*++.. . | | . +.B.o o . | | E . B.o o . . | | . o.+ + . | | . o.S... . | | . o ..o. . ...| | . . . o +.oo| | . ..o.+o+..| | .. .o+o.o. | +----[SHA256]-----+ 然后 cd ~/.ssh cat id_rsa.pub >> authorized_keys chmod 600 authorized_keys chmod 700 ~/.ssh 然后修改下 SSH 的配置 先备份 sudo cp /etc/ssh/sshd_config /etc//ssh/sshd_config.default sudo gedit /etc/ssh/sshd_config 或者 sudo nano /etc/ssh/sshd_config 这个图是针对 Ubuntu 16.04 的,下面有针对 Ubuntu 18.04 的。 主要是下面2个 PermitRootLogin yes AuthorizedKeysFIle 前面的注释去掉。 针对 Ubuntu 18.04 LTS ,需要修改以下项: PermitRootLogin yes StrictModes yes PubkeyAuthentication yes PasswordAuthentication no 检查下 sudo sshd -t 然后重启 SSH 服务 sudo service ssh restart 或者 sudo systemctl restart ssh.service 如果提示没找到 ssh.service,那就装下 sudo apt install ssh sudo service ssh restart 然后把私钥下载 id_rsa 复制到可见的目录下,比如说用户名是 ubuntus, 那就在自己的主目录下新建个 backup 目录,将 id_rsa 复制过来,并更改下拥有者 cd ~ mkdir backup cp ~/.ssh/id_rsa ~/backup cd ~/backup sudo chown uuu id_rsa 然后把它下载到自己的电脑上。用 PUTTY 的转换工具 PuttyGen ,点击 COversions,载入id_rsa,输入生成时的“密码”, 生成 ppk 格式的私钥, 点击 Save private key ,保存密钥,就可以通过 WinSCP 或者 PuTTY 使用了: 在 WinSCP 中新建站点,输入IP(可在 linux 上执行 ifconfig 查看它在局域网内的IP),点“高级”,SSH->验证中选中 ppk : 确定,保存,输入密钥的用户名和在 Ubuntu 上生成时的“密码”,即可连接:
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